如何评估在PHP中作为string传递的公式?

试图找出正确和安全的方式来执行math运算作为string传递。 在我的情况下,它是从图像EXIF数据中获取的值。

经过一番研究,我发现了两种做法。

首先,使用eval

 function calculator1($str){ eval("\$str = $str;"); return $str; } 

其次,使用create_function

 function calculator2($str){ $fn = create_function("", "return ({$str});" ); return $fn(); }; 

这两个示例都需要清理string以避免恶意代码执行。 有没有其他或更短的方式呢?

One Solution collect form web for “如何评估在PHP中作为string传递的公式?”

这可能有帮助。

http://www.phpclasses.org/browse/package/2695.html

烦人的login需要下载。 我复制了一个粘贴在这里给你。

  • 这个类可以用来安全地评估mathexpression式。
  • 该类可以在文本string中expression一个expression式,并通过replacevariables值并计算math函数和操作的结果来对其进行评估。
  • 它支持隐式乘法,多variables函数和嵌套函数。
  • 它可以用来评估来自不受信任来源的expression式。 它提供了强大的错误检查function,只评估一组有限的function。
  • 它可以用来从公式expression式生成图表。
  /* ================================================================================ EvalMath - PHP Class to safely evaluate math expressions Copyright (C) 2005 Miles Kaufmann <http://www.twmagic.com/> ================================================================================ NAME EvalMath - safely evaluate math expressions SYNOPSIS <? include('evalmath.class.php'); $m = new EvalMath; // basic evaluation: $result = $m->evaluate('2+2'); // supports: order of operation; parentheses; negation; built-in functions $result = $m->evaluate('-8(5/2)^2*(1-sqrt(4))-8'); // create your own variables $m->evaluate('a = e^(ln(pi))'); // or functions $m->evaluate('f(x,y) = x^2 + y^2 - 2x*y + 1'); // and then use them $result = $m->evaluate('3*f(42,a)'); ?> DESCRIPTION Use the EvalMath class when you want to evaluate mathematical expressions from untrusted sources. You can define your own variables and functions, which are stored in the object. Try it, it's fun! METHODS $m->evalute($expr) Evaluates the expression and returns the result. If an error occurs, prints a warning and returns false. If $expr is a function assignment, returns true on success. $m->e($expr) A synonym for $m->evaluate(). $m->vars() Returns an associative array of all user-defined variables and values. $m->funcs() Returns an array of all user-defined functions. PARAMETERS $m->suppress_errors Set to true to turn off warnings when evaluating expressions $m->last_error If the last evaluation failed, contains a string describing the error. (Useful when suppress_errors is on). AUTHOR INFORMATION Copyright 2005, Miles Kaufmann. LICENSE Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1 Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. */ class EvalMath { var $suppress_errors = false; var $last_error = null; var $v = array('e'=>2.71,'pi'=>3.14); // variables (and constants) var $f = array(); // user-defined functions var $vb = array('e', 'pi'); // constants var $fb = array( // built-in functions 'sin','sinh','arcsin','asin','arcsinh','asinh', 'cos','cosh','arccos','acos','arccosh','acosh', 'tan','tanh','arctan','atan','arctanh','atanh', 'sqrt','abs','ln','log'); function EvalMath() { // make the variables a little more accurate $this->v['pi'] = pi(); $this->v['e'] = exp(1); } function e($expr) { return $this->evaluate($expr); } function evaluate($expr) { $this->last_error = null; $expr = trim($expr); if (substr($expr, -1, 1) == ';') $expr = substr($expr, 0, strlen($expr)-1); // strip semicolons at the end //=============== // is it a variable assignment? if (preg_match('/^\s*([az]\w*)\s*=\s*(.+)$/', $expr, $matches)) { if (in_array($matches[1], $this->vb)) { // make sure we're not assigning to a constant return $this->trigger("cannot assign to constant '$matches[1]'"); } if (($tmp = $this->pfx($this->nfx($matches[2]))) === false) return false; // get the result and make sure it's good $this->v[$matches[1]] = $tmp; // if so, stick it in the variable array return $this->v[$matches[1]]; // and return the resulting value //=============== // is it a function assignment? } elseif (preg_match('/^\s*([az]\w*)\s*\(\s*([az]\w*(?:\s*,\s*[az]\w*)*)\s*\)\s*=\s*(.+)$/', $expr, $matches)) { $fnn = $matches[1]; // get the function name if (in_array($matches[1], $this->fb)) { // make sure it isn't built in return $this->trigger("cannot redefine built-in function '$matches[1]()'"); } $args = explode(",", preg_replace("/\s+/", "", $matches[2])); // get the arguments if (($stack = $this->nfx($matches[3])) === false) return false; // see if it can be converted to postfix for ($i = 0; $i<count($stack); $i++) { // freeze the state of the non-argument variables $token = $stack[$i]; if (preg_match('/^[az]\w*$/', $token) and !in_array($token, $args)) { if (array_key_exists($token, $this->v)) { $stack[$i] = $this->v[$token]; } else { return $this->trigger("undefined variable '$token' in function definition"); } } } $this->f[$fnn] = array('args'=>$args, 'func'=>$stack); return true; //=============== } else { return $this->pfx($this->nfx($expr)); // straight up evaluation, woo } } function vars() { $output = $this->v; unset($output['pi']); unset($output['e']); return $output; } function funcs() { $output = array(); foreach ($this->f as $fnn=>$dat) $output[] = $fnn . '(' . implode(',', $dat['args']) . ')'; return $output; } //===================== HERE BE INTERNAL METHODS ====================\\ // Convert infix to postfix notation function nfx($expr) { $index = 0; $stack = new EvalMathStack; $output = array(); // postfix form of expression, to be passed to pfx() $expr = trim(strtolower($expr)); $ops = array('+', '-', '*', '/', '^', '_'); $ops_r = array('+'=>0,'-'=>0,'*'=>0,'/'=>0,'^'=>1); // right-associative operator? $ops_p = array('+'=>0,'-'=>0,'*'=>1,'/'=>1,'_'=>1,'^'=>2); // operator precedence $expecting_op = false; // we use this in syntax-checking the expression // and determining when a - is a negation if (preg_match("/[^\w\s+*^\/()\.,-]/", $expr, $matches)) { // make sure the characters are all good return $this->trigger("illegal character '{$matches[0]}'"); } while(1) { // 1 Infinite Loop ;) $op = substr($expr, $index, 1); // get the first character at the current index // find out if we're currently at the beginning of a number/variable/function/parenthesis/operand $ex = preg_match('/^([az]\w*\(?|\d+(?:\.\d*)?|\.\d+|\()/', substr($expr, $index), $match); //=============== if ($op == '-' and !$expecting_op) { // is it a negation instead of a minus? $stack->push('_'); // put a negation on the stack $index++; } elseif ($op == '_') { // we have to explicitly deny this, because it's legal on the stack return $this->trigger("illegal character '_'"); // but not in the input expression //=============== } elseif ((in_array($op, $ops) or $ex) and $expecting_op) { // are we putting an operator on the stack? if ($ex) { // are we expecting an operator but have a number/variable/function/opening parethesis? $op = '*'; $index--; // it's an implicit multiplication } // heart of the algorithm: while($stack->count > 0 and ($o2 = $stack->last()) and in_array($o2, $ops) and ($ops_r[$op] ? $ops_p[$op] < $ops_p[$o2] : $ops_p[$op] <= $ops_p[$o2])) { $output[] = $stack->pop(); // pop stuff off the stack into the output } // many thanks: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_Polish_notation#The_algorithm_in_detail $stack->push($op); // finally put OUR operator onto the stack $index++; $expecting_op = false; //=============== } elseif ($op == ')' and $expecting_op) { // ready to close a parenthesis? while (($o2 = $stack->pop()) != '(') { // pop off the stack back to the last ( if (is_null($o2)) return $this->trigger("unexpected ')'"); else $output[] = $o2; } if (preg_match("/^([az]\w*)\($/", $stack->last(2), $matches)) { // did we just close a function? $fnn = $matches[1]; // get the function name $arg_count = $stack->pop(); // see how many arguments there were (cleverly stored on the stack, thank you) $output[] = $stack->pop(); // pop the function and push onto the output if (in_array($fnn, $this->fb)) { // check the argument count if($arg_count > 1) return $this->trigger("too many arguments ($arg_count given, 1 expected)"); } elseif (array_key_exists($fnn, $this->f)) { if ($arg_count != count($this->f[$fnn]['args'])) return $this->trigger("wrong number of arguments ($arg_count given, " . count($this->f[$fnn]['args']) . " expected)"); } else { // did we somehow push a non-function on the stack? this should never happen return $this->trigger("internal error"); } } $index++; //=============== } elseif ($op == ',' and $expecting_op) { // did we just finish a function argument? while (($o2 = $stack->pop()) != '(') { if (is_null($o2)) return $this->trigger("unexpected ','"); // oops, never had a ( else $output[] = $o2; // pop the argument expression stuff and push onto the output } // make sure there was a function if (!preg_match("/^([az]\w*)\($/", $stack->last(2), $matches)) return $this->trigger("unexpected ','"); $stack->push($stack->pop()+1); // increment the argument count $stack->push('('); // put the ( back on, we'll need to pop back to it again $index++; $expecting_op = false; //=============== } elseif ($op == '(' and !$expecting_op) { $stack->push('('); // that was easy $index++; $allow_neg = true; //=============== } elseif ($ex and !$expecting_op) { // do we now have a function/variable/number? $expecting_op = true; $val = $match[1]; if (preg_match("/^([az]\w*)\($/", $val, $matches)) { // may be func, or variable w/ implicit multiplication against parentheses... if (in_array($matches[1], $this->fb) or array_key_exists($matches[1], $this->f)) { // it's a func $stack->push($val); $stack->push(1); $stack->push('('); $expecting_op = false; } else { // it's a var w/ implicit multiplication $val = $matches[1]; $output[] = $val; } } else { // it's a plain old var or num $output[] = $val; } $index += strlen($val); //=============== } elseif ($op == ')') { // miscellaneous error checking return $this->trigger("unexpected ')'"); } elseif (in_array($op, $ops) and !$expecting_op) { return $this->trigger("unexpected operator '$op'"); } else { // I don't even want to know what you did to get here return $this->trigger("an unexpected error occured"); } if ($index == strlen($expr)) { if (in_array($op, $ops)) { // did we end with an operator? bad. return $this->trigger("operator '$op' lacks operand"); } else { break; } } while (substr($expr, $index, 1) == ' ') { // step the index past whitespace (pretty much turns whitespace $index++; // into implicit multiplication if no operator is there) } } while (!is_null($op = $stack->pop())) { // pop everything off the stack and push onto output if ($op == '(') return $this->trigger("expecting ')'"); // if there are (s on the stack, ()s were unbalanced $output[] = $op; } return $output; } // evaluate postfix notation function pfx($tokens, $vars = array()) { if ($tokens == false) return false; $stack = new EvalMathStack; foreach ($tokens as $token) { // nice and easy // if the token is a binary operator, pop two values off the stack, do the operation, and push the result back on if (in_array($token, array('+', '-', '*', '/', '^'))) { if (is_null($op2 = $stack->pop())) return $this->trigger("internal error"); if (is_null($op1 = $stack->pop())) return $this->trigger("internal error"); switch ($token) { case '+': $stack->push($op1+$op2); break; case '-': $stack->push($op1-$op2); break; case '*': $stack->push($op1*$op2); break; case '/': if ($op2 == 0) return $this->trigger("division by zero"); $stack->push($op1/$op2); break; case '^': $stack->push(pow($op1, $op2)); break; } // if the token is a unary operator, pop one value off the stack, do the operation, and push it back on } elseif ($token == "_") { $stack->push(-1*$stack->pop()); // if the token is a function, pop arguments off the stack, hand them to the function, and push the result back on } elseif (preg_match("/^([az]\w*)\($/", $token, $matches)) { // it's a function! $fnn = $matches[1]; if (in_array($fnn, $this->fb)) { // built-in function: if (is_null($op1 = $stack->pop())) return $this->trigger("internal error"); $fnn = preg_replace("/^arc/", "a", $fnn); // for the 'arc' trig synonyms if ($fnn == 'ln') $fnn = 'log'; eval('$stack->push(' . $fnn . '($op1));'); // perfectly safe eval() } elseif (array_key_exists($fnn, $this->f)) { // user function // get args $args = array(); for ($i = count($this->f[$fnn]['args'])-1; $i >= 0; $i--) { if (is_null($args[$this->f[$fnn]['args'][$i]] = $stack->pop())) return $this->trigger("internal error"); } $stack->push($this->pfx($this->f[$fnn]['func'], $args)); // yay... recursion!!!! } // if the token is a number or variable, push it on the stack } else { if (is_numeric($token)) { $stack->push($token); } elseif (array_key_exists($token, $this->v)) { $stack->push($this->v[$token]); } elseif (array_key_exists($token, $vars)) { $stack->push($vars[$token]); } else { return $this->trigger("undefined variable '$token'"); } } } // when we're out of tokens, the stack should have a single element, the final result if ($stack->count != 1) return $this->trigger("internal error"); return $stack->pop(); } // trigger an error, but nicely, if need be function trigger($msg) { $this->last_error = $msg; if (!$this->suppress_errors) trigger_error($msg, E_USER_WARNING); return false; } } // for internal use class EvalMathStack { var $stack = array(); var $count = 0; function push($val) { $this->stack[$this->count] = $val; $this->count++; } function pop() { if ($this->count > 0) { $this->count--; return $this->stack[$this->count]; } return null; } function last($n=1) { return $this->stack[$this->count-$n]; } } 

编辑:抖动想要支持逆波兰表示法的版本。 让我想起我上大学的时候,当时我有一台惠普计算器:)

  <?php /* This Class can be useful for writting RPN macros or FORTH like parsers @Author: Arturo Gonzalez-Mata Santana (Spain) arturogmata@gmail.com @copyright 2007: www.phpsqlasp.com It is part of a project to recover "macros" from some old aplications This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA */ class RPNstack { var $data=array(); var $compare=0; function pop() {return array_shift ($this->data);} function push($x) {array_unshift($this->data, $x);} function count() {return count($this->data);} function first() {return $this->data[0];} function top() {return end($this->data);} //last element of function swap() { // interchange tow elements $t = $this->data[1]; $this->data[1] = $this->data[0]; $this->data[0] = $t; } function dup() { // put a copy of X element in the stack array_unshift($this->data, $this->data[0]); } function dump(){ // dump array data for debuging print_r($this->data); } function parse($tok) // execute actions with the stack for each token { $r = null; $tok = strtoupper(trim($tok)); //$this->dump(); // this line is for debugging purpose only switch ($tok) : // FIRST "IF THEN" AND OTHER FLOW CONTROLS case ('THEN'): break; case('IF'): if ($this->pop() == 0) do { // if condition is false do nothing until "THEN" $tok = strtoupper(strtok (" ")); } while ($tok <> "THEN"); // IF THERE IS NO "THEN" THIS SHALL BE AN ENLESS LOOP break; // basic math operators //OPERADORES MATEMATICOS BASICOS case('+'): $r = $this->pop() + $this->pop(); // $r = array_shift($this->data) + array_shift($this->data); // is more efficient but less understable break; case('-'): $r = $this->pop(); $r = $this->pop()-$r; break; case('*'): $r = $this->pop() * $this->pop(); break; case('/'): $r = $this->pop(); $r = $this->pop() / $r; break; // stack operators //OPERADORES DE PILA case ('DUP'): $r=$this->dup(); break; case ('SWAP'): $this->swap(); break; // COMPARISON OPERATORS case ('='): if ($this->data[0] == $this->data[1]) $r = $this->push(1); else $r = $this->push(0); break; case ('<>'): if ($this->data[0] <> $this->data[1]) $r = $this->push(1); else $r = $this->push(0); break; case ('<'): if ($this->data[0] < $this->data[1]) $r = $this->push(1); else $r = $this->push(0); break; case ('>'): if ($this->data[0] > $this->data[1]) $r = $this->push(1); else $r = $this->push(0); break; case ('>='): if ($this->data[0] >= $this->data[1]) $r = $this->push(1); else $r = $this->push(0); break; case ('<='): if ($this->data[0] <= $this->data[1]) $r = $this->push(1); else $r = $this->push(0); break; // WARNING FOR NON IMPLEMENTED FUNCTIONS default: return sprintf('I don\'t know how to "%s" ', $tok); endswitch; if (!is_null($r)) $this->push($r); return $r; } // parse function parse_line($cadena) { $tok = strtok ($cadena," "); while ($tok!= '') { if (is_numeric ($tok)) { $this->push($tok); } else { $r = $this->parse($tok); } $tok = strtok (" "); } return $r; } } // class RPN ?> 
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